Argument to moderation (Latin: argumentum ad temperantiam) is an informal fallacy which asserts that the truth can be found as a compromise between two opposite positions. It is also known as the argument from middle ground, false compromise, grey fallacy and the golden mean fallacy. It is effectively an inverse false dilemma, discarding both of two opposites in favour of a middle position. It is related to, but different from the false balance fallacy.
An individual demonstrating this fallacy implies that the positions being considered represent extremes of a continuum of opinions, that such extremes are always wrong, and the middle ground is always correct. This is not necessarily the case.
The form of the fallacy goes like this:
Premise: There is a choice to make between doing X or doing Y.
Conclusion: Therefore, the answer is somewhere between X and Y.
This argument is invalid because the conclusion does not logically follow from the premise. Sometimes only X or Y is right or true, with no middle ground possible.
To give an example of this fallacy:
‘The fact that one is confronted with an individual who strongly argues that slavery is wrong and another who argues equally strongly that slavery is perfectly legitimate in no way suggests that the truth must be somewhere in the middle.’
Another example is:
’You say the sky is blue, while I say the sky is red. Therefore, the best solution is to compromise and agree that the sky is purple.’
This fallacy is sometimes used in rhetorical debates to undermine an opponent’s position. All one must do is present yet another, radically opposed position, and the middle-ground compromise will be forced closer to that position. In pragmatic politics, this is part of the basis behind the Overton window theory.
In US politics this fallacy is known as ‘High Broderism’ after David Broder, a columnist and reporter for the Washington Post who insisted, against all reason, that the best policy was always the middle ground between the Republicans and the Democrats.
Related to this fallacy is design by committee, which is a disparaging term used to describe a project that has many designers involved but no unifying plan or vision, often resulting in a negotiated compromise; as illustrated by the aphorism ‘A camel is a horse designed by a committee’. The point is that a negotiated compromise is not necessarily true, right or even the optimal outcome. This does not mean that a negotiated compromise may not be appropriate in some cases.
 Susan T. Gardner (2009).Thinking Your Way to Freedom: A Guide to Owning Your Own Practical Reasoning. Temple University Press.
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