Fallacies

fallacy is an error in reasoning resulting in a false conclusion or misconception. A fallacious argument can be deductively invalid (a formal fallacy) or one that has false premises or insufficient inductive strength (an informal fallacy).

A deductively invalid argument is one where the conclusion does not logically follow from the premises. That is , the conclusion can be false even if the premises are true. Thus a formal fallacy is fallacious only because of its logical form, regardless of its content.

On the other hand, an informal fallacy is fallacious because of its content, regardless of its form. An example of an informal fallacy is a conclusion that smoking does not cause cancer based on the anecdotal evidence of only one healthy smoker.

Here is a list of some of the more common fallacies, plus a few new ones.

More fallacies are available at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

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